Tumour Markers

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Common Tumor Markers Currently in Use

tumor markers cancers What else? When/how usedUsual sample
AFP
Liver, germ cell cancer of ovaries or testes Also elevated during pregnancy and in hepatitis Help diagnose, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood
CA 15-3 Breast and others including lung, ovarian Also elevated in benign breast conditions. Stage disease, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood
CA 19-9 Pancreatic, sometimes bowel and bile ducts Also elevated in pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease Stage disease, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood
CA-125 Ovarian Also elevated with endometriosis, some other diseases and benign conditions; not recommended as a general screen Stage disease, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood
CEA Bowel, lung, breast, thyroid, pancreatic, liver, cervix, and bladder Elevated in other conditions such as hepatitis, COPD, colitis, pancreatitis, and in cigarette smokers Monitor treatment and determine recurrence Blood
Oestrogen receptors Breast Increased in hormone- dependent cancer Determine prognosis and guide treatment Tissue
hCG Testicular and trophoblastic Elevated in pregnancy, testicular failure Help diagnose, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood, urine
Her-2/neu Breast Oncogene that is present in multiple copies in 20-30% of invasive breast cancer Determine prognosis and guide treatment Tissue
Monoclonal immunoglobulins Multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia Overproduction of an immunoglobulin or antibody, usually detected by protein electrophoresis Help diagnose, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood, urine
Progesterone receptors Breast Increased in hormone-dependent cancer Determine prognosis and guide treatment Tissue
PSA Prostate Elevated in benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and with age Help diagnose, monitor treatment, and determine recurrence Blood

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