Acidosis and Alkalosis

Print this article
Share this page:

Common causes of acid-bases disorders


Respiratory acidosis
Reduced carbon dioxide removal

Decreased breathing (due to drugs or to central nervous system disorders)
Slow breathing
Lung disease Respiratory muscle/nerve disease (myasthaenia gravis, botulism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome)


Respiratory alkalosis
Increased carbon dioxide removal

Fast Breathing (due to anxiety, pain, shock)
Severe infection or fever
Liver failure
Pneumonia, pulmonary congestion or embolism


Metabolic acidosis
Decreased bicarbonate, due to loss or to increased acid

Alcoholic ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Kidney failure
Lactic acidosis
Toxins – overdose of salicylates (aspirin), methanol, ethylene glycol, toluene
Gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, such as from prolonged diarrhoea


Metabolic alkalosis
Increased bicarbonate, due to gain, or to loss of acid

Diuretics
Prolonged vomiting
Severe dehydration

« Prev | Next »