Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterised by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. This means you may be more likely to get fragility fractures of the hip, spine, and wrist. Osteoporosis develops when bone resorption occurs too rapidly and bone formation fails to keep up. It is more likely to develop if your bones do not achieve their optimal mass during your bone-building years. Men (1 in 10) as well as women (1 in 4 over the age of 60) suffer from osteoporosis, a disease that can be largely prevented and treated.
Paget’s disease. Paget's disease is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. In this disease, the breakdown and formation of bone tissue is excessive. As a result, bone can weaken, resulting in bone pain, arthritis, deformities, and fractures. It may be inherited, since the disease has been known to appear in more than one family member and some genes have been discovered which might cause the disease. It may also be caused by a "slow virus" infection that is in your body for many years before symptoms appear. Paget's disease is rarely diagnosed in people under 40 years of age. Men and women are affected equally and can occur in any ethnic group.
Bone metastasis. Cancer cells that leave the (primary) tumour and enter the bloodstream can take up residence in nearly every tissue of the body. Bones are one of the most common sites for these circulating cells to settle and start growing again. Metastases can occur in bones that are near or far from the primary tumour site. Metastatic bone disease is not the same as primary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer refers to a cancer that starts in bone. Bone metastasis and primary bone cancer differ in their risk factors, treatments, and outlook. Primary bone cancer is much less common than bone metastasis. Bone metastasis is one of the most frequent causes of pain in patients with cancer.
About half of all people who have cancer (except those with skin cancer) develop bone metastasis at some point in the course of their disease. Breast, prostate, kidney, lung, pancreas, bowel, stomach, thyroid, and ovarian cancers account for most metastases to bones. The spine is the area most often affected by bone metastasis, followed by the pelvis, hip, upper leg bones (femurs), and the skull.