If your doctor thinks that you have an electrolyte imbalance
A blood sample taken from a vein in the arm or a urine sample
Chloride is an electrolyte. When combined with sodium it is mostly found in nature as “salt.” Chloride is important in maintaining the normal acid-base balance of the body and, along with sodium, in keeping normal levels of water in the body. Chloride generally increases or decreases in direct relationship to sodium, but may change without any change in sodium when there are problems with too much acid or base in your body. Chloride is taken into the body through food. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and the excess is excreted in urine. The normal blood concentration remains steady, with a slight drop after meals (because the stomach produces hydrochloric acid after eating, using chloride from blood).
How is the sample collected for testing?
A blood sample is taken by needle from the arm. Chloride can also be measured in a urine sample.
Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?
No test preparation is needed.
How is it used?
When is it requested?
A blood chloride test may be requested to help evaluate kidney function and acid-base status. It may also be requested if you are in hospital and receiving intravenous (IV) fluids. If your sodium measurement is abnormal, the doctor may look at whether the chloride measurement changes in the same way. This may help the doctor to workout if there is also a problem with acid or base and may help guide treatment.
What does the test result mean?
A severe elevation or loss of this electrolyte can indicate a serious fluid and electrolyte imbalance. The type of medical treatment depends on the cause of the problem.
Increased levels of chloride (called hyperchloraemia) usually indicate dehydration, but can also occur with any other problem that causes high blood sodium. Hyperchloraemia also occurs when too much alkaline fluid is lost from the body (producing metabolic acidosis), or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis).
Decreased levels of chloride (called hypochloraemia) occur with any disorder that causes low blood sodium. Hypochloraemia also occurs with prolonged vomiting or gastric suction, chronic diarrhoea, emphysema, or other chronic lung disease (causing respiratory acidosis), and with loss of acid from the body (called metabolic alkalosis).
Is there anything else I should know?
Drugs that affect sodium blood levels will also cause changes in chloride such as the use of diuretics. In addition, the chronic use of laxatives or taking more than the recommended dosage of antacids can also cause low blood chloride.
Where does chloride come from in the diet?
Most chloride exists as a compound with sodium in the form of sodium chloride, or table salt.
What treatments are prescribed to affect chloride levels?